Election Audits

Tips on observing all steps in elections

Sample size estimates to audit each federal contest 2020

Winning margin & audit options in all contests, selected counties

Video explanation of approaches to audits

Current audit rules in each state (see map below)

Paper on good ways to audit all contests

Costs of past audits

Reports on past audits:

Arizona's 2020 General audits.


California's 2021 Recall audits and 2008-2011 and election administration plans

Colorado's 2017-2021 audits. 2018 critique of 2017 audits

Connecticut, 2011-present (click "Next Dist" to get local report at bottom of screen) and critique. 2022 RLA audit report, and  critique of RLA report

Florida 2020 official audits. 3 counties independently audited by AuditEngine


Maryland: each county audits a sample of one contest and Clear Ballot re-interprets every ballot image: 2020 Clear Ballot



Nebraska's 2020 General and Primary audits (2% random sample of all precincts meant 1 or 2 each in 27 or 20 of the 93 counties).

New Jersey

New Mexico 

New York: 2020 general for Kings,  Nassau Richmond Suffolk,  Broome Cayuga Chenango Cortland Herkimer Madison Oneida Onondaga Oswego Tioga Wayne counties & more on Madison+Oswego (and guidance)

North Carolina's 2 precincts per county and 1 local contest in 17 counties


Pennsylvania's 2019-2020 audits and 2018 court agreement "audit all unofficial election results using robust pre-certification audit methods..."


Virginia with 2019-2020 audits; summary instructions

Washington's 2020 San Juan County (very experienced) report & video (staff block view; 290 ok of 290 votes checked), and Pierce County report (36 ok of 36 votes checked)


Please tell, the sites for other audit reports


Current, sortable, list of Audit Rules is actively and accurately maintained at

(the map at is less up to date and less detailed)